Fiber optic is a system that is operated by the principle of transmitting light through a pure glass rope that is produced with a very high precision and in the hair of the person. The main reason for choosing such cables is that the environmental conditions are heavy; humid, humid, electrical field parasites are not affected by places where they are dense and always provide a stable connection. Fiber optic cables deliver transmission at a speed of light, that is, 300,000 km per second. Because of these aspects, they are designed to transfer data over long distances.
When looking at the cross-section of a fiber optic cable, the inner parts are:
Center – thin glass layer in which light moves
Glass Cover – Made of an optical material that covers the outside of the center
Sheath – Outer layer that protects the cord against shocks and moisture
These cables, which consist of hundreds or even thousands of optical fibers, are divided into two according to their center diameters, the material they are made of and the shape of the light breaking.
1. Single Mode Fibers: They are thin-centric cables with a diameter of approximately 9 microns and transmit the infrared laser light with wavelength between 1300 and 1550 nanometers. This type of cable is often used where data loss is desired.
2. Multiple Mode Fibers: They have a diameter of approximately 62.5 microns and transmit infrared laser light with a wavelength between 850 and 1300 nanometers. The amount of loss is higher than that of single mode cables.
Some fiber cables are made of plastic and have a center of 1mm. These cables transmit visible red light with a wavelength of 650 nanometers.
How Fiber Optic Cables Transmit the Light?
fiber2.jpg The beam sent from the laser follows a linear path at first. At first, the lower – upper boundary rays coming out as light signals 1 and 2, as seen in the figure; The light is reflected back into the glass cover and is reflected back in this way. This is why it is important for fiber cables to follow a generally flat path without excessive crimp, for data transmission speed and quality. The glass cover layer does not absorb light and reflects it almost exactly, which is a very important point for the loss of information.
Fiber optic cables may be added to other protective and resilient parts such as steel armor or gel layer depending on the location and conditions of use. This protective layer placed on the cable also contains special chemicals to prevent rodent bites. These substances prevent the rodents from snorting when they bite the cable.